Japanese Terminology

Counting
Ichi One
Ni Two
San Three
Shi (Yon) Four
Go Five
Roku Six
Sichi (Nana) Seven
Hachi Eight
Kyu (Ku) Nine
Jyu (Ju) Ten

Clothing and equipment
Bokken Wooden sword
Dogi Another name for the uniform
Dojo Practice place
Gi Uniform
Hakama Pleated skirt-like cloth worn usually by a black belt holder
Jo Wooden stick
Kamiza Shrine
Obi Belt
Shiro obi White belt or a practitioner with a white belt
Kuro obi Black belt or a black belt holder
Tanto Wooden knife
Tatami Practice mat
Yudansha Black belt holder
Zori Sandals

Manners
Rei Bowing; literally "appreciation and respect"
Ritsurei Standing bow
Zarei Sitting bow

Roles
Nage The person who does the technique
O Sensei The founder of Aikido
Sensei The instructor
Uke The person who receives the technique

Posture
Ai hanmi Partners face each other, each with the right or the left foot forward
Gyaku hanmi Partners face each other, one with the right foot forward the other with the left foot forward
Hanmi The basic standing posture in Aikido, literally means ""half body"", i.e., in case of right hanmi, one stands with the right hand and right foot forward
Hara or Tanden The lower abdominal part, below the navel, the center of the human being where power is generated
Kamae Posture, guard
Maai Proper distance between the two partners facing each other
Seiza Kneeling position, sitting on the heels with back straight

Falls (Ukemi)
Koho kaitenBack roll
Zempo kaitenForward roll

Warm up
Jumbi undoWarm up exercises
Haishin undoFinal back stretch

Partner practice
Sotai dosaPartner practice in doing aikido exercises
Tai no tenkanTenkan practice, turning the body with one hand grabbed by the Uke and where the Uke moves forward with the tenkan
Kokyu hoBreath power exercise; kokyu literally means ""breathing""
Kokyu dosaSitting kokyu exercise

Technique Categories
Hanmi handachiTechniques done with Nage sitting and Uke standing
Henka wazaChaining techniques
IrimiEntering movement going toward uke
Kaeshi wazaCounter techniques
Omote wazaEntering movement in front of uke, considered positive
ShikkoKnee walking in suwari waza or hanmi handachi waza
Soto kaitenOutside turning movement
Suwari wazaSitting techniques
Tachi wazaStanding technique
Tai sabakiBody movement in response to the attack
TenkanTurning movement
TenshinNage steps back
Uchi kaitenInside turning movement
Ura wazaEntering movement behind uke, considered negative
WazaTechniques, movements

Attacks
Ai hanmi katate toriCross hand grasp of a wrist (e.g. left hand grasps left wrist)
Gyaku hanmi katate toriMirror grasp of a wrist (e.g. left hand grasps right wrist)
Kata toriShoulder grasp with one hand
Katate toriWrist grasp with one hand
Morote toriWrist grasp with two hands
Muna mochiLapel grab with one hand
Ryote toriBoth wrists grasped from the front (one hand per wrist)
Ryo kata toriShoulder grasp with two hands
Shomen uchiDescending strike to the top of the head
Sode toriSleeve grab with one hand
TsukiThrust punch
Ushiro ryo kata toriBoth shoulders grasped from behind
Ushiro tekubi toriBoth wrists grasped from behind
Yokomen uchiDiagonal strike to the head with the blade of the hand

Attacks with weapons
Tachi toriMovements with uke attacking with a sword
Jo toriMovements with uke attacking with a wooden stick
Tanto toriMovements with uke attacking with a wooden knife
Kumi tachiSword against sword movements
Kumi joJo against jo movements

Aikido Techniques - Katame waza (immobilization movements)

Ikkyo"First principle" or arm pin
Nikyo"Second principle" or wrist control by turning it in
Sankyo"Third principle" or wrist control by twisting it
Yonkyo"Fourth principle" pressure point arm control
Gokyo"Fifth principle"

Aikido Techniques - Nage-waza (throwing movements)

Aiki otoshiThrow by lifting uke's legs
Irimi nageEntering throw
Juji nageIntertwined arms throw
Kaiten nageThrowing by pushing diagonally on one of uke's arm while controlling his head
Kokyu hoBreathing exercise
Kokyu nageBreath power throw
Kote gaeshiThrowing by turning out uke's wrist
Koshi nageHip throw
Shiho nageFour corners throw
Sumi otoshiCorner throw
Tenchi nageHeaven (ten) and earth (chi) throw
Gyakute nageElbow cutting throw




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